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Several factors can affect your risk of anal cancer. But having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get cancer. Many people with risk factors will never develop anal cancer, while others with this disease may have few or no known risk factors.
Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for anal cancer. Most squamous cell anal cancers are linked to infection with HPV. HPV is a group of more than 150 related viruses, the same group of viruses that causes cervical cancer, as well as other kinds of cancer. In fact, women with a history of cervical cancer (or pre-cancer) have an increased risk of anal cancer.
Infection with HPV is common, and in most cases, the body can clear the infection by itself. Sometimes, however, the infection does not go away and becomes chronic. Chronic infection, especially when it is caused by certain high-risk HPV types, can eventually cause certain cancers, such as anal cancer.
Certain types of HPV are called high-risk because they are strongly linked to cancers including anal cancer, as well as cancer of the cervix, vulva, and vagina in women, penile cancer in men, and cancers of the anus, mouth, and throat in both men and women. The high-risk subtype most likely to cause anal cancer is HPV-16. Another high-risk type is HPV-18, but this is seen less often with anal cancer.
People who have had anal warts are more likely to get anal cancer. This is because people who are infected with HPV subtypes that cause anal and genital warts are also more likely to be infected with HPV subtypes that cause anal cancer.
People infected with HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus), the virus that causes AIDS, are much more likely to get anal cancer than those not infected with this virus. For more information see HIV Infection, AIDS, and Cancer.
Smoking increases the risk of anal cancer. The higher a person's pack-year history of smoking, the higher their risk of developing anal cancer. People who currently smoke are more likely to have cancer of the anus compared with people who do not smoke or have quit smoking. Quitting smoking seems to reduce the risk.
Machalek DA, Poynten M, Jin F, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplastic lesions in men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:487-500.
Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about anal cancer prevention, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.
\"}}]}Skip directly to site contentSkip directly to page optionsSkip directly to A-Z linkCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting PeopleCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People SearchSubmitHIVSection NavigationCDC Home Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate Ways HIV Can Be TransmittedEspañol (Spanish)MinusRelated PagesHow is HIV passed from one person to anotherMost people get HIV through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment (for example, cookers). But there are powerful tools to help prevent HIV transmission.
Symptoms of anal itching may include intense itching, inflammation, burning and soreness. The itching and irritation may be short lived or more persistent, depending on the cause. Anal itching often is worse at bedtime or in hot, humid weather.
The goal of anal fissure treatment is to lower the pressure on the anal canal by making stools soft, and to ease discomfort and bleeding. Conservative treatments are tried first and include one or more of the following:
These practices heal most fissures (80 to 90 percent) within several weeks to several months. However, when treatments fail and anal fissures persist or come back, other measures can be tried, including:
A fissure may fail to heal because of scarring or muscle spasms of the internal anal sphincter muscle. Surgery usually consists of making a cut to a small portion of the internal anal sphincter muscle to reduce pain and spasms and allow the fissure to heal. Cutting the muscle rarely results in the loss of ability to control bowel movements.
Background: The first UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (1996) demonstrated the benefit of chemoradiation over radiotherapy (RT) alone for treating epidermoid anal cancer, and it became the standard treatment. Patients in this trial have now been followed up for a median of 13 years.
Results: Twelve years after treatment, for every 100 patients treated with chemoradiation, there are an expected 25.3 fewer patients with locoregional relapse (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.5-32.0 fewer) and 12.5 fewer anal cancer deaths (95% CI: 4.3-19.7 fewer), compared with 100 patients given RT alone. There was a 9.1% increase in non-anal cancer deaths in the first 5 years of chemoradiation (95% CI +3.6 to +14.6), which disappeared by 10 years.
Conclusions: The clear benefit of chemoradiation outweighs an early excess risk of non-anal cancer deaths, and can still be seen 12 years after treatment. Only 11 patients suffered a locoregional relapse as a first event after 5 years, which may influence the choice of end points in future studies.
5 year survival statistics are available for some stages of anal cancer in England. These figures are for people diagnosed between 2013 and 2017. The 5 year statistics for stages 1, 2 and 3 are non-age-standardised which means they don't take into account the age of the people with anal cancer.
Symptoms of anal cancer can include bleeding, bowel changes and severe itching (pruritus). These can also be symptoms of other conditions, but it's important to see your doctor if you have any of these symptoms.
You usually start by seeing your GP if you have symptoms that could be due to anal cancer. They will ask you about your general health and may also examine you. Your doctor will then decide whether to do tests or refer you to a specialist.
As with most forms of sexual activity, anal sex participants risk contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Anal sex is considered a high-risk sexual practice because of the vulnerability of the anus and rectum. The anal and rectal tissue are delicate and do not provide lubrication like the vagina does, so they can easily tear and permit disease transmission, especially if a personal lubricant is not used. Anal sex without protection of a condom is considered the riskiest form of sexual activity, and therefore health authorities such as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend safe sex practices for anal sex.
Strong views are often expressed about anal sex. It is controversial in various cultures, especially with regard to religious prohibitions. This is commonly due to prohibitions against anal sex among males or teachings about the procreative purpose of sexual activity. It may be considered taboo or unnatural, and is a criminal offense in some countries, punishable by corporal or capital punishment. By contrast, anal sex may also be considered a natural and valid form of sexual activity as fulfilling as other desired sexual expressions, and can be an enhancing or primary element of a person's sex life.
The abundance of nerve endings in the anal region and rectum can make anal sex pleasurable for men or women. The internal and external sphincter muscles control the opening and closing of the anus; these muscles, which are sensitive membranes made up of many nerve endings, facilitate pleasure or pain during anal sex. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia states that \"the inner third of the anal canal is less sensitive to touch than the outer two-thirds, but is more sensitive to pressure\" and that \"the rectum is a curved tube about eight or nine inches long and has the capacity, like the anus, to expand\".
Research indicates that anal sex occurs significantly less frequently than other sexual behaviors, but its association with dominance and submission, as well as taboo, makes it an appealing stimulus to people of all sexual orientations. In addition to sexual penetration by the penis, people may use sex toys such as a dildo, a butt plug or anal beads, engage in fingering, anilingus, pegging, anal masturbation or fisting for anal sexual activity, and different sex positions may also be included. Fisting is the least practiced of the activities, partly because it is uncommon that people can relax enough to accommodate an object as big as a fist being inserted into the anus.
In a male receptive partner, being anally penetrated can produce a pleasurable sensation due to the object of insertion rubbing or brushing against the prostate through the anal wall. This can result in pleasurable sensations and can lead to an orgasm in some cases. Prostate stimulation can produce a deeper orgasm, sometimes described by men as more widespread and intense, longer-lasting, and allowing for greater feelings of ecstasy than orgasm elicited by penile stimulation only. The prostate is located next to the rectum and is the larger, more developed male homologue (variation) to the female Skene's glands. It is also typical for a man to not reach orgasm as a receptive partner solely from anal sex.
The Gräfenberg spot, or G-spot, is a debated area of female anatomy, particularly among doctors and researchers, but it is typically described as being located behind the female pubic bone surrounding the urethra and accessible through the anterior wall of the vagina; it and other areas of the vagina are considered to have tissue and nerves that are related to the clitoris. Direct stimulation of the clitoris, a G-spot area, or both, while engaging in anal sex can help some women enjoy the activity and reach orgasm during it. 59ce067264